Khám phá phản xạ có điều kiện và tìm hiểu sự hình thành thói quen ở trẻ sơ sinh

Như chúng ta đã biết phản xạ là những phản ứng của cơ thể trước các tác động của môi trường. Có phản xạ không điều kiện và phản xạ có điều kiện. Trong đó phản xạ không điều kiện có trước, phản xạ có điều kiện có sau. Các phản xạ có điều kiện được hình thành trên cơ sở phản xạ không điều điện.

Bài viết dưới đây sẽ đề cập tới các phản xạ có điều kiện ban đầu ở trẻ. Qua đó, chúng ta sẽ hiểu về cách hình thành một thói quen trong sinh hoạt hàng ngày.

Tìm hiểu thêm: 6 phản xạ không điều kiện của trẻ sơ sinh.

(Nguồn ảnh: indy100)

Một số phản xạ có điều kiện

  1. Phản xạ có điều kiện sớm nhất được hình thành ở trẻ là những phản xạ lấy thức ăn (sữa mẹ) được củng cố. Sau khi lọt lòng cứ 20-30 phút mẹ lại cho bú đúng một tư thế nằm của trẻ, thì phản xạ có điều kiện bú được thành lập ngay ở những ngày đầu khi trẻ ra đời, chỉ cần 2 đến 3 lần nhắc đi nhắc lại (củng cố). Một thực nghiệm khác, cứ khi nào mẹ bế trẻ vào lòng cho bú, thì bật đèn (đứa trẻ sinh ra được 16-20 giờ) sau nhiều lần như vậy, đứa trẻ qua 10-12 ngày thành lập được phản xạ có điều kiện, chỉ cần bật đền là phản xạ bú mút xuất hiện. Sau 1 tháng tuổi, nhiều phản xạ có điều kiện được thành lập.
  2. Phản xạ có điều kiện với thời gian, nếu cho trẻ bú đúng giờ thì cứ đúng giờ ấy trẻ xuất hiện phản xạ bú tóp tép. Sau 2 tháng tuổi, các phản xạ có điều kiện với các kích thích thính giác, thị giác xuất hiện. Đây là mốc quan trọng đánh dấu bước đầu phát triển tri giác.
  3. Trẻ quay đầu về phía âm thanh cùng với ánh sáng tác động, phản xạ có điều kiện loại này xuất hiện đánh dấu bước phát triển quan trọng của hệ thần kinh. Có sự điều khiển của tủy sống và não khi có kích thích tác động, ở đây không chỉ là một thuộc tính của sự vật và hiện tượng mà là một số thuộc tính, tính chất của chúng. Ví dụ, khi nhìn thấy tư thế ngồi của mẹ, nghe tiếng mẹ âu yếm ngọt ngào, nhìn vào ánh mắt yêu thương, trìu mến của mẹ phản xạ bú nhai tóp tép xuất hiện ngay (Theo M.M. Consova).
  4. Sau 2 tháng tuổi, các tế bào thần kinh võ não phát triển mạnh, quá trình Myeelin hóa lớn mạnh, giúp cho quá trình hình thành phản xạ có điều kiện xảy ra nhanh chóng với những kích thích đa dạng. Điều này, chứng tỏ bước đầu hoạt động thần kinh cao cấp của trẻ được phát triển rất đáng kể, chi phối đáng kể biểu hiện như sau:
    • Số lượng các kích thích mà trẻ phản ứng tăng lên (ở nhiều giác quan) rõ rệt.
    • Các vùng dưới vỏ não và vỏ não có khả năng hưng phấn thuận lợi dễ dàng thành lập các mối liên hệ thần kinh đơn giản. Tuy nhiên, nếu có sự rối loạn tiêu hóa, mệt mỏi có thể dễ dàng phá hủy những phản xạ có điều kiện đã được thành lập.
    • Tháng tuổi càng cao vỏ não và các quá tình thần kinh càng được luyện tập, tốc độ thành lập mối liên hệ giữa các dây thần kinh tạm thời nhanh. Mối liên hệ thần kinh đối với những củng cố thức ăn, có thể được hình thành cùng một lúc với 3, 4 kích thích phối hợp.
    • Các mối liên hệ thần kinh được thành lập trở lên vững chắc bền chặt, nhờ có sự phát triển các loại quá trình ức chế.

Cùng với sự phát triển cơ thể trẻ, sự linh hoạt các quá trình thần kinh càng tăng lên nhanh chóng, dễ dàng thành lập và dập tắt các liên hệ thần kinh, dễ dàng chuyển đổi phản ứng từ dương tính sang âm tính.

Nguồn tham khảo: Sách “Sự học và sự phát triển tâm lý trẻ em lứa tuổi mầm non” NXB Đại học Huế, chủ biên Nguyễn Văn Thu.

Kinh nghiệm dành cho cha mẹ trong việc chăm sóc trẻ

Từ những thông tin trên đây cho thấy, việc lặp đi lặp lại một hành động ngay từ khi trẻ sinh ra sẽ giúp hình thành nên thói quen ở trẻ. Vì thế, trong việc chăm sóc trẻ hàng ngày, cha mẹ nên lưu ý:

  • Hãy lựa chọn cách chăm sóc phù hợp với trẻ và ít tốn công của cha mẹ nhất (ví dụ: cho trẻ bú nằm, cho trẻ tự nằm chơi thay vì bế bồng, ru trẻ ngủ nằm…). Bởi vì những thói quen đã hình thành ngay từ đầu sẽ rất khó để thay đổi sau này. Tất nhiên, việc thực hiện cũng nên linh động và rất cần chú ý tới vấn đề sức khỏe của trẻ.
  • Thống nhất cách chăm sóc với tất cả mọi người từ bố, mẹ, ông, bà, vú em…Bởi chỉ cần 1 người chăm sóc chiều chuộng trẻ thái quá thì sẽ dễ dàng hình thành nên một thói quen không tốt.

Điều cuối cùng cha mẹ cần nhớ đó là, không phải trẻ bị “bỏ mặc” như tự nằm chơi, nằm bú, tự ngủ… là thiếu thốn tình cảm và không thỏai mái. Và không phải cứ ôm ấp vỗ về mới là việc thể hiện sự yêu thương. Có rất nhiều cách khác để truyền cho trẻ tình yêu, vấn đề ở đây chính là giúp xây dựng thói quen tốt ở trẻ.

Xem thêm:

Tìm hiểu về não trái của trẻ.
Đặc điểm não bộ của trẻ sơ sinh.
Các tế bào não bộ kết nối với nhau như thế nào?
Phương pháp phát huy tối đa tiềm năng của trẻ
Chất dinh dưỡng tốt cho sự phát triển não bộ.

 

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