Những chất dinh dưỡng nào tốt cho sự phát triển não bộ của trẻ?

Là cha mẹ ai cũng muốn con mình khỏe mạnh, thông minh. Vậy trí thông minh ở não bộ của trẻ do những yếu tố nào quyết định? Và thật sự có loại thực phẩm nào giúp phát triển não bộ của bé hay không?

Sự phát triển trí thông minh não bộ của trẻ phụ thuộc vào 3 yếu tố quan trọng: Di truyền, chế độ dinh dưỡng và sự rèn luyện. học tập, môi trường sống.

Bài viết liên quan: TÌM HIỂU CẤU TẠO NÃO BỘ CỦA BÉ.

Dinh dưỡng tốt cho sự phát triển não bộ của trẻ

Như vậy không có loại thực phẩm nào giúp trẻ thông minh, mà các chất dinh dưỡng chỉ có tác dụng hỗ trợ để phát huy những tiềm năng di truyền về gen thông minh đã có sẵn. Ngoài ra sự rèn luyện trong quá trình học tập cũng có tác dụng hỗ trợ trí thông minh phát triển.
Tuy vậy, nhiều nghiên cứu khoa học đã chỉ ra rằng, một vài chất dinh dưỡng khi bị thiếu hụt sẽ ảnh hưởng đến khả năng phát triển trí não ở trẻ em.
dinh duong 2

Chất đạm

Là chất dinh dưỡng quan trọng đối với sự phát triển của cơ thể, trong đó có não bộ của trẻ. Protein là vật liệu xây dựng lên các tế bào mô, cung cấp nguyên liệu cần thiết cho sự hình thành các dịch tiêu hóa, các nội tiết tố, các men và vitamin. Khi chất đạm bị thiếu hụt sẽ ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển của cơ thể, bao gồm não bộ.

Iốt có tầm quan trọng với não bộ của trẻ

Nếu thiếu iốt trong thời gian mẹ mang thai, sẽ giảm sự phát triển não bộ của thai nhi, hoàn toàn có thể dẫn đến chứng kém thông minh. Iốt là thành phần cấu tạo của hoocmon tuyến giáp, giữ vai trò quan trọng trong chuyển hóa. Khi thực phẩm thiếu iốt, không những lượng iốt di chuyển qua nhau thai của người mẹ sang bào thai sẽ không đủ, mà hàm lượng iốt trong sữa mẹ nguy cơ cũng rất thiếu, dẫn đến suy giảm sự phát triển não bộ, và dẫn đến bệnh đần độn do thiểu năng tuyến giáp.

Sắt

Nguyên nhân phổ biến nhất dẫn đến thiếu máu là do thiếu sắt. Sắt là thành phần của huyết sắc tố, myoglobin, các xitrocrom và nhiều enzim khác. Sắt có vai trò vận chuyển oxy và giữ vai trò quan trọng trong hô hấp tế bào. Trẻ em bị thiếu sắt có chỉ số phát triển tâm thần và vận động thấp hơn trẻ cùng trang lứa trong môi trường sống tương tự nhau. Khi trẻ đã lớn, thiếu sắt cũng làm giảm trí nhớ, thiếu oxy não bộ của trẻ gây ảnh hưởng đến kết quả học tập.

Các axit béo không no chuỗi dài

Thành phần não bộ có đến 60% là chất béo. Trong đó ARA và DHA là các thành phần lipid chính của não. Trong thời gian mang thai, người mẹ huy động ARA và DHA để hỗ trợ cho sự phát triển não bộ thai nhi. Người mẹ cung cấp hai dưỡng chất quan trọng này qua sữa mẹ, do vậy nuôi con bằng sữa mẹ luôn làm tăng chỉ số thông minh của trẻ.
Ngoài bốn dưỡng chất kể trên còn nhiều các vi chất dinh dưỡng khác như: kẽm, crôm, đồng,… cũng rất quan trọng cho sự phát triển của bé.

Bài viết liên quan: BÀI TẬP KÍCH THÍCH NÃO BỘ CHO BÉ TẠI NHÀ.
dinh duong1

Vậy muốn tốt cho não bộ của trẻ, bậc phụ huynh phải làm gì?

Trước, trong thời kỳ mang thai, thời gian cho con bú, các mẹ phải ăn uống đầy đủ các dưỡng chất quan trọng nhằm phát triển tốt cho não bộ của trẻ, đó là : axit folic, các axit béo chưa no (DHA, ARA) có trong các loại thực phẩm như thịt, cá, trứng, tôm, cua, ,sữa… rau xanh, quả chín. Nên uống thêm dầu gan cá, ăn các loại dầu thực vật, dầu đậu nành, dầu oliu… Nhiều nghiên cứu đã chứng minh, các bà bầu ăn cá thường xuyên (>5 lần/ tuần) sinh con ra có chỉ số IQ cao hơn so với các bà mẹ còn lại không ăn nhiều cá.
Trong thời gian cho con bú, nếu các mẹ thường xuyên ăn cá và dầu thực vật thì nguồn ARA và DHA cao trong sữa sẽ giúp cho sự phát triển thị lực và trí não của trẻ rất tốt trong 2 năm đầu đời.
Thời kỳ ăn dặm: Trẻ em cần được cung cấp đầy đủ các dưỡng chất để bổ sung dinh dưỡng như: Các axit béo không no từ dầu, dầu gan cá, cá biển, các loại vitamin và muối khoáng khác từ nguồn rau quả, uống các loại sữa có bổ sung ARA, DHA, taurin, iốt, sắt và các vi chất dinh dưỡng.

Như vậy, muốn trẻ thông minh, khỏe mạnh, các bà bầu cần chuẩn bị từ trước khi mang thai. Ăn uống đầy đủ khi mang thai, nên nuôi con bằng sữa mẹ. Quan trọng, kết hợp giữa bổ sung dinh dưỡng với dạy dỗ và môi trường sống tốt cho trẻ.

Đọc thêm: KHÁM PHÁ THẾ GIỚI QUA TRANH.

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