Chứng rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ: Cần phát hiện sớm và hỗ trợ kịp thời

Rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ em là tình trạng trẻ có những bất ổn kéo dài trong tâm lý, tư duy của trẻ, đồng thời kèm theo những khó khăn trong hoạt động tâm thần, cũng như hoạt động thể chất hàng ngày.

Để hiểu thêm về các đặc điểm, dấu hiệu nhận biết và cách điều trị những rối loạn phổ biến ở trẻ, phụ huynh hãy tham khảo bài viết sau.

1. Sơ lược về rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ em

Theo kết quả nghiên cứu về nhận thức ở trẻ em từ năm 1991 đến nay, trẻ em Việt Nam thường có một trong những biểu hiện thuộc các nhóm rối loạn về mặt nhận thức ở các mức độ khác nhau, cần được phát hiện kịp thời và điều trị phù hợp. Các nhóm rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ em bao gồm:

1.1. Nhóm rối loạn về nhân cách: gồm có:

Hội chứng tự kỷ: Trẻ thiếu sót trong những kỹ năng tương tác xã hội. Trẻ thường hay thu mình, ngại tiếp xúc với những người xung quanh. Trẻ thích chơi một mình, không đòi hỏi, ít khóc lóc. Về ngôn ngữ giao tiếp: Trẻ không chịu nói hoặc chỉ nói được vài từ rời rạc khi đã đến giai đoạn biết nói. Hoặc trước đây trẻ đã biết nói nhưng tự nhiên không nói nữa.

Lo âu, trầm cảm: biểu hiện bằng những triệu chứng như sau:

  • Trẻ sợ trường học, sợ đám đông, sợ vật lạ, sợ độ cao, sợ nước, sợ đi xe máy hoặc xe ô tô,…
  • Trẻ có những ám ảnh nhất định, trẻ rất nhút nhát.
  • Trẻ thường không chịu vận động, thu rút, ít tiếp xúc với mọi người xung quanh.
  • Trẻ có thể kèm theo các biểu hiện suy nhược, mệt mỏi kéo dài, hay giật mình, hay cáu gắt hoặc có biểu hiện lười biếng.
  • Trẻ hay mút tay, cắn móng tay, nhổ tóc, hay rửa tay, rửa mặt, nghịch chất bẩn,…

1.2 Nhóm rối loạn hành vi

  • Trẻ hiếu động quá mức, hay chạy nhảy la hét, nghịch phá, không cảm thấy nguy hiểm;
  • Trẻ thường không vâng lời, thích chống đối, ngoan cố, hay nói tục.
  • Trẻ có tính cách hung dữ, hay đánh bạn, có những hành vi hung hãn, không hòa nhập được trong môi trường học tập lành mạnh.
  • Trẻ có thể có hành vi ăn cắp vặt, nói dối, trốn học, bỏ nhà đi chơi, thường xuyên vi phạm nội quy nhà trường,…

1.3. Nhóm rối loạn về tâm thể

  • Rối loạn giấc ngủ như: khó ngủ, mất ngủ, hay thức giấc giữa đêm, ngủ gặp ác mộng, ngủ nhiều,…
  • Rối loạn bài tiết: đái dầm, tiểu són.
  • Rối loạn tiêu hóa như: biếng ăn, chán ăn, ăn nhiều quá mức,… thường đi kèm với các triệu chứng như sụt cân, tăng cân, béo phì,…
  • Trẻ có những hành vi lặp đi lặp lại (rối loạn tic) như: nháy mắt, lắc đầu, tằng hắng, khịt mũi,…

Đọc thêm:

Vì sao con bạn thất hứa? Dạy một đứa trẻ biết giữ lời hứa như thế nào?

5 điều cha mẹ nên làm để khích lệ tinh thần cho trẻ.

sad-kid

(Nguồn ảnh: AdrenalFatigue.org)

2. Phương pháp điều trị những rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ em

Khi phát hiện trẻ có những biểu hiện bất thường về tâm lý cha mẹ nên đưa trẻ đến các cơ sở chuyên trị để khám và được tư vấn. Với bài viết này, Bé tư duy chỉ xin cung cấp một số thông tin chung được tổng hợp từ các nguồn tin cậy để cha mẹ khỏi bỡ ngỡ.

Để điều trị những rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ, các nhà khoa học, nhà tâm lý học có những biện pháp điều trị như sau:

Giáo dục hành vi: Nguyên tắc của phương pháp điều trị này là xây dựng những hành vi có lợi về mặt xã hội, hạn chế những hành vi gây bất lợi của trẻ. Mọi kỹ năng của trẻ sẽ được chia thành những bước nhỏ để dạy theo hình thức một kèm một với những kỹ thuật đặc biệt.

Ngôn ngữ trị liệu: Dạy trẻ giao tiếp là một kỹ năng quan trọng, là cách giúp trẻ bộc lộ nhu cầu, hạn chế được hành vi tiêu cực, tăng cường kỹ năng xã hội của trẻ. Tùy mức độ phát triển về tư duy của trẻ, các chuyên gia ngôn ngữ có thể dạy trẻ giao tiếp bằng lời nói, bằng cử chỉ, hoặc bằng hình vẽ. Kết quả điều trị ngôn ngữ giao tiếp phụ thuộc nhiều vào sự tham gia của cha mẹ, thời điểm điều trị sớm hay muộn, mức độ phát triển trí tuệ cùng những kỹ năng khác của trẻ.

Can thiệp qua các giác quan: Việc tăng cường kích thích giác quan của trẻ chủ đạo nhắm vào hoạt động cảm giác như: về vận động và thăng bằng, xúc giác và cảm giác bản thể.

Hóa dược trị liệu: Bên cạnh những phương pháp trên thì hóa dược trị liệu hay thuốc uống cũng là một nhân tố không thể thiếu được trong phương châm điều trị rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ em. Một số nhóm thuốc như chống trầm cảm, giải lo âu, dưỡng não, ổn định hành vi, ổn định cảm xúc, khí sắc,… được sử dụng cho trẻ uống hàng ngày để góp phần nâng cao hiệu quả điều trị.

Đối với trẻ em, quá trình phát triển tư duy của trẻ là một phạm trù khá rộng và trải qua những giai đoạn không hề đơn giản. Vì vậy, bố mẹ hãy quan tâm đến trẻ nhiều hơn để kịp thời phát hiện những rối loạn nhận thức ở trẻ và có phương pháp điều trị, can thiệp kịp thời, tránh những hậu quả đáng tiếc sau này.


Đọc thêm:

Những sự nhạy cảm đầy sức sống trong những năm đầu đời của trẻ.

Chỉ số EQ thực ra gồm những yếu tố nào?

Chứng rối loạn lo âu ở trẻ: Cần được phát hiện sớm và hỗ trợ kịp thời.

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